Jean-louis Dessalles - Publications

    [See all papers] - [Representative Papers] - [Talks] -     See also Books:                              

Keys

SIMPLICITY:Simplicity Theory
EVOL.&LANG.:Evolutionary origins of language and of cognition
NARRATIVE:Cognitive modelling of interest in conversational narratives
ARGUMENTATION:Cognitive modelling of relevance in argumentative discussions
MEANING:Cognitive modelling of meaning
CONVERSATION:Cognitive modelling of spontaneous conversation
EMOTION:Cognitive modelling of emotional intensity
LEARNING:Cognitive modelling of concept learning
CONSCIOUSNESS:Qualia cannot be epiphenomenal (but the expl. gap is intact)
EMERGENCE:Emergence as complexity drop
EVOL.&INFORM.:Evolution and information

Selected topic: Cognitive modelling of concept learning


I showed that general learning procedures are bound to produce "good shapes" (in the sense of the Gestalt theory).

I also investigated a way of learning concepts (as opposed to skills) through argumentative discussion.

My 24 papers about LEARNING (but see my other papers)

  1. Dessalles, J.-L. (1998). Limits of isotropic bias in natural and artificial models of learning. In G. Ritschard, A. Berchtold, F. Duc & D. A. Zighed (Eds.), Apprentissage : Des principes naturels aux méthodes artificielles, 307-319. Paris: Hermès.
    http://www.dessalles.fr/papers/Dessalles_97062502.pdf
    Keywords: LEARNING
    Bias is always present in learning systems. There is no perfect, universal, way of learning that would avoid any 'innate' predetermination. However, all biases should not be considered equivalent. Usually, it is implicitly regarded as desirable to avoid anisotropic biases when designing a learning mechanism, especially when it is intended as a cognitive model of some human or animal learning ability. Anisotropic bias necessarily involves some ad hoc a priori knowledge that severely limits the generality of the learning device.

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  2. Auriol, J.-B. & Dessalles, J.-L. (1998). Error characterisation in problem solving tasks. In C. Alvegård (Ed.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer Aided Learning and Instructions in Science and Engineering (CALISCE-98), 381-389. Göteborg: Chalmers University of Technology.
    http://www.dessalles.fr/papers/Dessalles_98021203.pdf
    Keywords: LEARNING
    Students' errors become manifest through erroneous behaviours noticed by the teacher. However, addressing behavioural deviation alone is not sufficient to design appropriate feedback. We propose here a model of student error, based on a separation between procedural and logical knowledge. This model is tested through its ability to predict the observed behaviour of subjects solving the Tower of Hanoi problem. Using this model, we are able to propose a 'deep' error classification, based on the observation of the internal representations of the system when it generates deviant behaviours. From this characterisation of errors, we aim at designing a critiquing system. Such a system will deliver more elaborate feedback to the learner, from which we hope better pedagogical efficiency and better acceptability.

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  3. Auriol, J.-B. & Dessalles, J.-L. (1998). Separation of logical and calculation capabilities in a problem solving task. Proceedings of the European Conference on Cognitive Modelling (ECCM-98), 193-194. Nottingham: University of Nottingham.
    http://www.dessalles.fr/papers/Dessalles_98010510.pdf
    Keywords: LEARNING
    The distinction between declarative and procedural knowledge is a well-accepted one. However, few models offer a consistent implementation of this distinction. We present such a system, based on a strict separation of logical and calculation capabilities, designed to model aspects of human problem solving behaviour. We have tested our approach on the Tower of Hanoi task by comparing the results provided by our model with the performance of novice subjects. We also compared these results with the performance of a few other computational models. These comparisons are quite promising. Our model has been designed to be simple and psychologically plausible. Its current implementation is still basic. We expect further improvement from the joint introduction of two separate learning abilities, a logical one and a procedural one.

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  4. Dessalles, J.-L. (1998). Characterising innateness in artificial and natural learning. In D. Canamero & M. van Someren (Eds.), Proceedings of the European Conference on Machine Learning (ECML-98), Workshop on Learning in Humans and Machines, 6-17. Chemnitz: Technische Universität Chemnitz - CSR-98-03.
    http://www.dessalles.fr/papers/Dessalles_98042402.pdf
    Keywords: LEARNING
    The purpose of this paper is to propose a refinement of the notion of innateness. If we merely identify innateness with bias, then we obtain a poor characterisation of this notion, since any learning device relies on a bias that makes it choose a given hypothesis instead of another. We show that our intuition of innateness is better captured by a characteristic of bias, related to isotropy. Generalist models of learning are shown to rely on an 'isotropic' bias, whereas the bias of specialised models, which include some specific a priori knowledge about what is to be learned, is necessarily 'anisotropic'. The so-called generalist models, however, turn out to be specialised in some way: they learn 'symmetrical' forms preferentially, and have strictly no deficiencies in their learning ability. Because some learning beings do not always show these two properties, such generalist models may be sometimes ruled out as bad candidates for cognitive modelling.

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  5. Auriol, J.-B. & Dessalles, J.-L. (1997). Deux représentations des connaissances de l'élève en vue de la génération de critiques. In M. Baron, P. Mendelsohn & J.-F. Nicaud (Eds.), Actes des journées 'Environnements Interactifs d'Apprentissage avec Ordinateur' de Cachan (EIAO-97), 289-290. Paris: Hermès.
    http://www.dessalles.fr/papers/Dessalles_97062301.html
    Keywords: LEARNING
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  6. Bergasol, V., Dessalles, J.-L., Kaplan, F., Marze, J.-C. & Picault, S. (1996). X-MOISE: a logical spreadsheet to elicit didactic knowledge. In A. Diaz de Ilarraz & I. Fernandez de C. (Eds.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer Aided Learning and Instructions in Science and Engineering (CALISCE-96) - Lecture Notes in Computer Science 1108, 430-432. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
    http://www.dessalles.fr/papers/Dessalles_96011601.pdf
    Keywords: LEARNING
    Knowledge elicitation is a critical problem in computerized learning environments that make use of a knowledge base. Fortunately, contrary to usual expertise elicitation situations, didactic scientific knowledge is quite often well formalized, and authors are used to deal with the logical organization of the domain they teach. We want to propose here an original tool, a logical spreadsheet which, if included in an authoring package, will help authors organize concepts and at the same time make both conception and maintenance of didactic knowledge bases much easier.

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  7. Dessalles, J.-L. (1995). Modèle 'autoréactif' des sujets en situation de résolution de problème. In J. Caron-Pargue (Ed.), Actes des journée PROVERB de l'Association pour la Recherche Cognitive, ?? Paris: ENST.
    http://www.utc.fr/arco/frame.php?page=activites/journees/journees.html
    Keywords: LEARNING
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  8. Dessalles, J.-L. (1995). Generation of relevant didactic explanations by the computer running a simulation for itself. In D. Donoval (Ed.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer Assisted Engineering Education (CAEE-95), 218-225. Bratislava: Slovak Technical University.
    http://www.dessalles.fr/papers/Dessalles_95070302.pdf
    Keywords: LEARNING
    Conceptual knowledge is a fundamental part of what is taught to engineering students. However most efforts in C.A.L. research are devoted to helping students acquire new skills, not concepts. We describe here a research project that aims at providing the student with relevant conceptual explanations whenever these are needed. We try first to describe what a relevant explanation should be and how it could be generated. Then we consider the possibility of coupling the explanation module with a simulation program so that part of the knowledge used in explanations is extracted from the simulation.

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  9. Dessalles, J.-L. (1993). Ancrage sans extraction de régularités: le mécanisme d'appariement symbolique. In B. Amy, B. Orsier & A. Grumbach (Eds.), Actes des journées 'Formation des symboles dans les modèles de la cognition, 147-158. Grenoble: IMAG/LIFIA.
    Keywords: LEARNING     BibTeX
  10. Dessalles, J.-L. (1993). Modèle cognitif de la communication spontanée, appliqué à l'apprentissage des concepts - Thèse de doctorat. Paris: ENST - 93E022.
    http://www.dessalles.fr/papers/Dessalles_93082501.pdf
    Keywords: CONVERSATION LEARNING
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  11. Dessalles, J.-L. & Meyers, P. (1993). Exemple d'une simulation argumentée pour l'apprentissage de Prolog. In M. Baron, R. Gras & J.-F. Nicaud (Eds.), Actes des journées 'Environnements Interactifs d'Apprentissage avec Ordinateur' de Cachan (EIAO-93), 147-157. Paris: Eyrolles.
    http://www.dessalles.fr/papers/Dessalles_92092201.pdf
    Keywords: LEARNING CONVERSATION
    L'étudiant qui cherche à acquérir un savoir-faire, ici la maîtrise de Prolog, a aussi besoin de connaissances conceptuelles. Pour répondre à ce type de besoin, nous avons développé un système qui permet à l'étudiant de simuler l'exécution de son programme Prolog, mais qui lui offre aussi la possibilité de soumettre ce programme au regard critique de SAVANT 3. Ce dernier système a été conçu pour soutenir une argumentation avec l'étudiant. Il est utilisé ici pour critiquer la justesse et l'efficacité du programme écrit par l'étudiant, ce qui permet à celui-ci de corriger d'éventuelles fautes conceptuelles. L'étudiant peut ainsi faire tourner son programme et observer son exécution, pour ensuite "discuter" de ce qu'il a écrit avec SAVANT 3. Nous abordons la question de savoir s'il est possible et souhaitable d'étendre ce qui n'est pour l'instant qu'une maquette à des situations réelles (par ex. programme Prolog complexe) et à des sujets quelconques (économie, architecture de réseau, etc.).

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  12. Dessalles, J.-L. (1993). From I.T.S. to I.C.S.: learning with an intelligent critic, not with a tutor. In D. Ioan (Ed.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer Assisted Engineering Education (CAEE-93), 9-14. Bucharest: Politehnica University.
    http://www.dessalles.fr/papers/Dessalles_93060301.pdf
    Keywords: LEARNING
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  13. Dessalles, J.-L. (1993). Usage naturel du langage: modèle, simulation et application à l'apprentissage. In O. Boussaid, M. Brissaud & et al. (Eds.), Pluridisciplinarité dans les sciences cognitives - Actes du colloque de l'Association Internationale pour le Développement de la Recherche Interdisciplinaire (AIDRI-92), 180-193. Paris: Hermès.
    http://www.dessalles.fr/papers/Dessalles_92103005.html
    Keywords: ARGUMENTATION LEARNING
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  14. Dessalles, J.-L. (1992). SAVANT3 : un système d'EIAO fondé sur l'explication conversationnelle. Actes des journées 'Explication, 77-86. Sophia-Antipolis: INRIA.
    http://www.dessalles.fr/papers/Dessalles_92022501.pdf
    Keywords: LEARNING
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  15. Dessalles, J.-L. & Rajman, M. (1992). Concepts and procedures in engineering education: designing specific teaching aids. In K. Kveton (Ed.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Trans-European Cooperation in Engineering Education, 11-17. Prague: Czech Technical University.
    http://www.dessalles.fr/papers/Dessalles_92043001.pdf
    Keywords: LEARNING
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  16. Dessalles, J.-L. (1992). SAVANT: how to help engineers to learn new concepts. European Journal of Engineering Education, 17 (2), 189-194.
    http://www.dessalles.fr/papers/Dessalles_92070101.pdf
    Keywords: LEARNING
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  17. Dessalles, J.-L. (1992). Model-based surprise and explanation: a way to negotiate concepts. In P. Brezillon (Ed.), Proceedings of the European Conference on Artificial Intelligence (ECAI-92), Workshop on Improving the Use of Knowledge-Based Systems with Explanations, 107-113. Paris: Université Paris VI.
    http://www.dessalles.fr/papers/Dessalles_92031301.pdf
    Keywords: ARGUMENTATION LEARNING
    We present here an analysis of a specific form of explanation that can be found in naturally occurring conversations, and that may be needed by users of KBS: explanations as answers to surprises that follow a discrepancy between expectations and reality. We describe a tutoring system based on this type of explanation: SAVANT3 systematically looks for reasons to be surprised, so that the student feels compelled to give explanations. We examine the requirements that a system has to meet to be able to produce this kind of explanation based on a preliminary surprise.

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  18. Dessalles, J.-L. (1991). SAVANT: how to help engineers learn new concepts. In J. Michel & Z. Pitra (Eds.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer Assisted Engineering Education (CAEE-91), 202-207. Prague: Czech Technical University.
    Keywords: LEARNING     BibTeX
  19. Dessalles, J.-L. (1991). Conversation assisted learning: the SAVANT3 dialog module. In E. N. Forte (Ed.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer Aided Learning and Instructions in Science and Engineering (CALISCE-91), 159-165. Lausanne: Presses Polytechniques et Universitaires Romandes.
    http://www.dessalles.fr/papers/Dessalles_91091207.pdf
    Keywords: LEARNING
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  20. Dessalles, J.-L. (1990). SAVANT3 : un enseignement des concepts assisté par ordinateur. L'Echo des Recherches, 142, 34-44.
    http://www.dessalles.fr/papers/Dessalles_91041710.pdf
    Keywords: LEARNING
    On ne saurait imaginer l'enseignement du siècle prochain sans ordinateur. Certains affirment même que quelques séances où l'étudiant interagit avec la machine remplaceront bon nombre d'heures passées à écouter le monologue du professeur, à déchiffrer des livres ou à peiner sur des exercices. Pourtant, malgré la dimension de l'enjeu, personne n'est en mesure, à cette date, d'indiquer la manière de doter l'ordinateur d'une compétence suffisante pour qu'il tienne son rôle dans un tel scénario. Les principes qui sont à la base du système SAVANT3, développé à Télécom Paris, pourraient constituer un ingrédient de cet Enseignement Assisté par Ordinateur du futur.

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  21. Dessalles, J.-L. (1990). Computer assisted concept learning. In D. H. Norrie & H.-W. Six (Eds.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer Assisted Learning (ICCAL-90) - Lecture Notes in Computer Science 438, 175-183. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
    http://www.dessalles.fr/papers/Dessalles_90061501.pdf
    Keywords: LEARNING
    The present study shows that there is a qualitative difference between concept and skill acquisition, and that it may have some consequences on the design of C.A.I. courseware. We show for instance that concept learning is essentially a logical process, based on rule acquisition or modification, and that conversation (free dialogue) is best suited for concept transmission. This paper describes a mixed-initiative dialogue module which is part of the 'SAVANT 3' CAI system.

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  22. Dessalles, J.-L. (1989). L'enseignement des concepts assisté par ordinateur. Paris: Rapport Technique ENST 89-D-005.
    Keywords: LEARNING     BibTeX
  23. Dessalles, J.-L. (1984). SAVANT: l'enseignement assisté par télématique dans la formation des ingénieurs de l'ENST. L'Echo des Recherches, 117, 67-76.
    http://www.dessalles.fr/papers/Dessalles_90080301.pdf
    Keywords: LEARNING
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  24. Dessalles, J.-L. (1984). Une troisième voie pour l'assistance à l'enseignement supérieur : SAVANT. Actes du forum 'Enseignement Assisté par Ordinateur' (EAO-84), 35. Lyon: ESC de Lyon.
    Keywords: LEARNING     BibTeX

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